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They may be independent, or they may be linked so that behavior on one key affects the likelihood of reinforcement on the other.
It is not necessary for responses on the two schedules to be physically distinct. In an alternate way of arranging concurrent schedules, introduced by Findley in , both schedules are arranged on a single key or other response device, and the subject can respond on a second key to change between the schedules.
In such a "Findley concurrent" procedure, a stimulus e. Concurrent schedules often induce rapid alternation between the keys. To prevent this, a "changeover delay" is commonly introduced: When both the concurrent schedules are variable intervals , a quantitative relationship known as the matching law is found between relative response rates in the two schedules and the relative reinforcement rates they deliver; this was first observed by R.
Animals and humans have a tendency to prefer choice in schedules. Shaping is reinforcement of successive approximations to a desired instrumental response.
In training a rat to press a lever, for example, simply turning toward the lever is reinforced at first.
Then, only turning and stepping toward it is reinforced. The outcomes of one set of behaviours starts the shaping process for the next set of behaviours, and the outcomes of that set prepares the shaping process for the next set, and so on.
As training progresses, the response reinforced becomes progressively more like the desired behavior; each subsequent behaviour becomes a closer approximation of the final behaviour.
Chaining involves linking discrete behaviors together in a series, such that each result of each behavior is both the reinforcement or consequence for the previous behavior, and the stimuli or antecedent for the next behavior.
There are many ways to teach chaining, such as forward chaining starting from the first behavior in the chain , backwards chaining starting from the last behavior and total task chaining in which the entire behavior is taught from beginning to end, rather than as a series of steps.
An example is opening a locked door. First the key is inserted, then turned, then the door opened. Forward chaining would teach the subject first to insert the key.
Once that task is mastered, they are told to insert the key, and taught to turn it. Once that task is mastered, they are told to perform the first two, then taught to open the door.
Backwards chaining would involve the teacher first inserting and turning the key, and the subject then being taught to open the door.
Once that is learned, the teacher inserts the key, and the subject is taught to turn it, then opens the door as the next step.
Finally, the subject is taught to insert the key, and they turn and open the door. Once the first step is mastered, the entire task has been taught.
Total task chaining would involve teaching the entire task as a single series, prompting through all steps.
Prompts are faded reduced at each step as they are mastered. Persuasion is a form of human interaction. It takes place when one individual expects some particular response from one or more other individuals and deliberately sets out to secure the response through the use of communication.
The communicator must realize that different groups have different values. In instrumental learning situations, which involve operant behavior, the persuasive communicator will present his message and then wait for the receiver to make a correct response.
As soon as the receiver makes the response, the communicator will attempt to fix the response by some appropriate reward or reinforcement.
In conditional learning situations, where there is respondent behavior, the communicator presents his message so as to elicit the response he wants from the receiver, and the stimulus that originally served to elicit the response then becomes the reinforcing or rewarding element in conditioning.
A lot of work has been done in building a mathematical model of reinforcement. This model is known as MPR, short for mathematical principles of reinforcement.
Peter Killeen has made key discoveries in the field with his research on pigeons. The standard definition of behavioral reinforcement has been criticized as circular , since it appears to argue that response strength is increased by reinforcement, and defines reinforcement as something that increases response strength i.
However, the correct usage  of reinforcement is that something is a reinforcer because of its effect on behavior, and not the other way around.
It becomes circular if one says that a particular stimulus strengthens behavior because it is a reinforcer, and does not explain why a stimulus is producing that effect on the behavior.
Other definitions have been proposed, such as F. Sheffield's "consummatory behavior contingent on a response", but these are not broadly used in psychology.
Increasingly understanding of the role reinforcers play is moving away from a "strengthening" effect to a "signalling" effect.
While in most practical applications, the effect of any given reinforcer will be the same regardless of whether the reinforcer is signalling or strengthening, this approach helps to explain a number of behavioural phenomenon including patterns of responding on intermittent reinforcement schedules fixed interval scallops and the differential outcomes effect.
In the s Russian physiologist Ivan Pavlov may have been the first to use the word reinforcement with respect to behavior, but according to Dinsmoor he used its approximate Russian cognate sparingly, and even then it referred to strengthening an already-learned but weakening response.
He did not use it, as it is today, for selecting and strengthening new behaviors. Pavlov's introduction of the word extinction in Russian approximates today's psychological use.
In popular use, positive reinforcement is often used as a synonym for reward , with people not behavior thus being "reinforced", but this is contrary to the term's consistent technical usage, as it is a dimension of behavior, and not the person, which is strengthened.
Negative reinforcement is often used by laypeople and even social scientists outside psychology as a synonym for punishment.
This is contrary to modern technical use, but it was B. Skinner who first used it this way in his book. By , however, he followed others in thus employing the word punishment , and he re-cast negative reinforcement for the removal of aversive stimuli.
There are some within the field of behavior analysis  who have suggested that the terms "positive" and "negative" constitute an unnecessary distinction in discussing reinforcement as it is often unclear whether stimuli are being removed or presented.
For example, Iwata poses the question: Reinforcement and punishment are ubiquitous in human social interactions, and a great many applications of operant principles have been suggested and implemented.
Following are a few examples. Positive and negative reinforcement play central roles in the development and maintenance of addiction and drug dependence.
An addictive drug is intrinsically rewarding ; that is, it functions as a primary positive reinforcer of drug use.
The brain's reward system assigns it incentive salience i. For example, anti-drug agencies previously used posters with images of drug paraphernalia as an attempt to show the dangers of drug use.
However, such posters are no longer used because of the effects of incentive salience in causing relapse upon sight of the stimuli illustrated in the posters.
In drug dependent individuals, negative reinforcement occurs when a drug is self-administered in order to alleviate or "escape" the symptoms of physical dependence e.
Animal trainers and pet owners were applying the principles and practices of operant conditioning long before these ideas were named and studied, and animal training still provides one of the clearest and most convincing examples of operant control.
Of the concepts and procedures described in this article, a few of the most salient are: Providing positive reinforcement for appropriate child behaviors is a major focus of parent management training.
Typically, parents learn to reward appropriate behavior through social rewards such as praise, smiles, and hugs as well as concrete rewards such as stickers or points towards a larger reward as part of an incentive system created collaboratively with the child.
Providing positive reinforcement in the classroom can be beneficial to student success. When applying positive reinforcement to students, it's crucial to make it individualized to that student's needs.
This way, the student understands why they are receiving the praise, they can accept it, and eventually learn to continue the action that was earned by positive reinforcement.
For example, using rewards or extra recess time might apply to some students more, whereas others might accept the enforcement by receiving stickers or check marks indicating praise.
Both psychologists and economists have become interested in applying operant concepts and findings to the behavior of humans in the marketplace.
An example is the analysis of consumer demand, as indexed by the amount of a commodity that is purchased. In economics, the degree to which price influences consumption is called "the price elasticity of demand.
In terms of operant analysis, such effects may be interpreted in terms of motivations of consumers and the relative value of the commodities as reinforcers.
As stated earlier in this article, a variable ratio schedule yields reinforcement after the emission of an unpredictable number of responses.
This schedule typically generates rapid, persistent responding. Slot machines pay off on a variable ratio schedule, and they produce just this sort of persistent lever-pulling behavior in gamblers.
Because the machines are programmed to pay out less money than they take in, the persistent slot-machine user invariably loses in the long run.
Slots machines, and thus variable ratio reinforcement, have often been blamed as a factor underlying gambling addiction.
Nudge theory or nudge is a concept in behavioural science , political theory and economics which argues that positive reinforcement and indirect suggestions to try to achieve non-forced compliance can influence the motives, incentives and decision making of groups and individuals, at least as effectively — if not more effectively — than direct instruction, legislation, or enforcement.
The concept of praise as a means of behavioral reinforcement in humans is rooted in B. Skinner's model of operant conditioning.
Through this lens, praise has been viewed as a means of positive reinforcement, wherein an observed behavior is made more likely to occur by contingently praising said behavior.
In order for praise to effect positive behavior change, it must be contingent on the positive behavior i. Acknowledging the effect of praise as a positive reinforcement strategy, numerous behavioral and cognitive behavioral interventions have incorporated the use of praise in their protocols.
Braiker identified the following ways that manipulators control their victims: Traumatic bonding occurs as the result of ongoing cycles of abuse in which the intermittent reinforcement of reward and punishment creates powerful emotional bonds that are resistant to change.
Most video games are designed around some type of compulsion loop, adding a type of positive reinforcement through a variable rate schedule to keep the player playing the game, though this can also lead to video game addiction.
As part of a trend in the monetization of video games in the s, some games offered "loot boxes" as rewards or purchasable by real-world funds that offered a random selection of in-game items, distributed by rarity.
The practice has been tied to the same methods that slot machines and other gambling devices dole out rewards, as it follows a variable rate schedule.
While the general perception that loot boxes are a form of gambling, the practice is only classified as such in a few countries as gambling and otherwise legal.
However, methods to use those items as virtual currency for online gambling or trading for real-world money has created a skin gambling market that is under legal evaluation.
Ashforth discussed potentially destructive sides of leadership and identified what he referred to as petty tyrants: Individual differences in sensitivity to reward , punishment , and motivation have been studied under the premises of reinforcement sensitivity theory and have also been applied to workplace performance.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the psychological concept. For other uses, see Reinforcement disambiguation.
Consumer demand tests animals. Culture of fear , Organizational culture , Toxic workplace , and Workplace bullying. Abusive power and control Applied behavior analysis Behavioral cusp Carrot and stick Child grooming Dog training Idealisation Learned industriousness Overjustification effect Pavlovian-instrumental transfer Punishment Reinforcement learning Reinforcement sensitivity theory Reward system Society for Quantitative Analysis of Behavior Token economy.
From Theories to Data". Rewards in operant conditioning are positive reinforcers. Operant behavior gives a good definition for rewards.
Anything that makes an individual come back for more is a positive reinforcer and therefore a reward. Clinical Research of Abnormal The Biological Model of Abnormality The Psychodynamic Model of Abnormal The Cognitive Model of Abnormal The Humanistic-Existential Model of The Sociocultural Model of Abnormal The Diathesis-Stress Model Lesson Clinical Assessment in Psychology Introduction to Anxiety Disorders Mood Disorders of Abnormal Stress Disorders in Psychology Somatoform Disorders in Abnormal Eating Disorders in Abnormal Sexual and Gender Identity Substance Use Disorders in Psychotic Disorders in Abnormal Cognitive Disorders in Abnormal Life-Span Development Disorders in Personality Disorders in Abnormal Factitious Disorders in Abnormal Treatment in Abnormal Psychology Legal and Ethical Issues in Online Textbook Help Psychotherapy Approaches: Latest Courses Computer Science Introduction to Oceanography Computer Science Latest Lessons The Fifth Discipline: Popular Lessons Community Health: Create an account to start this course today.
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The overwhelming power of this reward schedule is thought to have developed in response to it ecological validity. The mechanisms that underlie conditioned responses developed in order to facilitate survival by linking salient cues with appropriate actions.
Conditioned responses are often sub-conscious and very quick. For appropriately conditioned responses this facilitates survival, but for badly conditioned responses it can be detrimental.
Therefore, you want conditioned responses to build up most readily to true predictors of consequence. In nature, cues that predict future events are most often going to follow a variable ratio.
Beyond being capitalized on by casinos the power of the variable ratio has a role to play in magical thinking. While logically it is easy to see that correlation does not imply causation , our underlying psychology is constantly forming just such inferences about the world around us.
Superstitions often develop my thinking that certain events predict certain outcomes, when in fact the relationship is random or only loosely related.
However, "random" co-variation, or variation due to third variables mimic "variable ratio" reward scheduling.
This means that the conditioned response to superstitions and magical thinking becomes highly ingrained very quickly, and is highly resistant to change.
Fighting pseudoscience isn't free.
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